General Description of Dialysis
Dialysis is the process of removing harmful substances like urea and excessive water that has built up in the body through a membrane (dialyser). It’s used in advanced renal failure. Dialysis treatment replaces impaired renal functions and maintains survival. About 30-40 years ago, patients who had renal failure were lost within weeks after diagnosis. Develoments in dialysis technology prolonged survival and improved quality of life.
Dialysis treatment can be performed in two ways:
2. Peritoneal dialysis
Hemodialysis was first performed by Dutch physcian Dr. Kolff in 1944. It’s the process of cleaning the blood by machines with a special membrane. In order to perform the process of hemodialysis, sufficient blood flow, a membrane and a hemodialysis device should be maintained. In order to maintain sufficient blood flow, a window should be created between the artery and vein (arteriovenous fistula) of the patient or a catheter should be put into a big vein of the patient. Hemodialysis treatment is applied 2-3 times a week for 4 to 6 hours depending on severity of renal failure and amount of patients’ urine. Insufficient hemodialysis treatment can cause death of he patient.
Generally hemodialysis treatment is applied in hospitals or in a hemodialysis unit. However with proper equipment, it can also be applied at home. 2.Peritoneal dialysis
Peritoneum is the membrane surrounding the organs in the abdomen .The surface area of peritoneum in humans is approximately 2 m2. On peritoneal dialysis, the peritoneum itself is used instead of a membrane. It was first performed by Ganter in 1923. In order to perform peritoneal dialysis, there are 3 technical requirements: 1. A catheter in the abdomen 2. Proper dialysis liquid 3. Connection system between the catheter and the dialysis liquid Peritoneal dialysis treatment can be applied in different ways. The most frequently used technique is continuos ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.
Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis
İt is a simple system where the dialysis liquid that is filled into the peritoneal cavity is replaced with a new one following 4-8 hours of waiting period. Generally it is performed four times a day at the hospital or at home. The most important advantage of peritoneal dialysis is that it can be done at home by the patient. Patient eeducation is important for succcess in peritoneal dialysis. Patients can choose between hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis unless there is certain medical indications.